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Resonance tube phonation in water - the effect of tube diameter and water depth on back pressure and bubble characteristics at different airflows.

Autoři: Wistbacka G., Andrade P.A., Simberg S., Hammarberg B., Södersten M., Švec J.G., Granqvist S.Publikováno : Journal of Voice 32(1), 126.e11-126.e22Rok: 2018

Objectives
Resonance tube phonation with tube end in water is a voice therapy method in which the patient phonates through a glass tube, keeping the free end of the tube submerged in water, creating bubbles. The purpose of this experimental study was to determine flow-pressure relationship, flow thresholds between bubble types, and bubble frequency as a function of flow and back volume.

Methods
A flow-driven vocal tract simulator was used for recording the back pressure produced by resonance tubes with inner diameters of 8 and 9 mm submerged at water depths of 0–7 cm. Visual inspection of bubble types through video recording was also performed.

Results
The static back pressure was largely determined by the water depth. The narrower tube provided a slightly higher back pressure for a given flow and depth. The amplitude of the pressure oscillations increased with flow and depth. Depending on flow, the bubbles were emitted from the tube in three distinct types with increasing flow: one by one, pairwise, and in a chaotic manner. The bubble frequency was slightly higher for the narrower tube. An increase in back volume led to a decrease in bubble frequency.

Conclusions
This study provides data on the physical properties of resonance tube phonation with the tube end in water. This information will be useful in future research when looking into the possible effects of this type of voice training.


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